ارزیابی درجه‌حرارت‌های کاردینال جوانه‌زنی و تأثیر دما بر شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی بذور اسفناج وحشی (Atriplex dimorphostegia)، علف‌شور (Salsola crassa) و سیاه‌شور (Suaeda aegyptiaca)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد شناسایی و مبارزه با علف های هرز/ دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشیار دانشکده کشاورزی/ دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

دماهایکاردینال مختلف برای جوانه­زنیباعثظهورغیرهمزمان علف­های هرزدرمزرعهشده وبرایمبارزهباآن­ها­­بایدبااطلاعاززماناوجهجومشان، به عملیاتمدیریتیمناسباقدامکرد. از این­رو به منظور بررسی دماهای کاردینال جوانه­زنی بذور اسفناج وحشی، علف شور و سیاه شور و اثر درجه حرارت­های مختلف بر شاخص­های جوانه­زنی این گیاهان، مطالعه­ای در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال 1392 در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 8 سطح دمایی (5، 10، 15، 20، 25، 30، 35، 40 درجه سانتی­گراد) و 4 تکرار انجام شد. نتایج آزمایش حاصل از برازش مدل­های درجه دو و دندانه­ای نشان داد که دماهای کاردینال جوانه­زنی شامل دمای پایه، بهینه و بیشینه برای اسفناج وحشی به ترتیب 57/5، 37/26، 07/47، برای علف شور به ترتیب 48/3، 57/21 و 66/39  و برای سیاه شور به ترتیب 96/6، 81/28 و 52/44 درجه سانتی­گراد بودند. تأثیر دما بر کلیه مؤلفه­های جوانه­زنی بذور اسفناج وحشی، علف­شور و سیاه­شور معنی­دار بود (01/0>P). کاهش درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی بذور اسفناج وحشی در کمترین دما نسبت به بیشترین دمایی که در آن جوانه­زنی رخ داد، به ترتیب 40/39، 99/33 درصد بود و این مقادیر برای علف­شور 86، 29/66 درصد و برای سیاه­شور04/87، 31/94 درصد محاسبه شد. بیشترین یکنواختی در جوانه­زنی بذور اسفناج وحشی در دمای 20 درجه، در علف­شور در بازه دمایی 15 تا 20 درجه و در سیاه­شور در دمای 20 تا 40 درجه سانتی­گراد بود. همچنین بین حداکثر و حداقل میزان طول ساقه­چه، طول ریشه­چه، وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه­ها به ترتیب 52/94، 91، 85 و 57/98 درصد در اسفناج وحشی،  09/63، 12/70، 52/71 و 85/53 درصد در علف­شور و 33/86، 99/93، 67/96 و 33/99 درصد در سیاه­شور اختلاف مشاهده شد. بیشترین شاخص بنیه بذر در اسفناج­وحشی و علف­شور در دمای 20 درجه و در سیاه­شور در دمای 10 درجه سانتی­گراد رخ داد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


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